September 25, 2017

Mercury in Fish and Seafood/魚介類に含まれる水銀

下記は、農林水産省発行の「妊婦への魚介類の摂食と水銀に関する注意事項」
の暫定訳"tentative translation..."の説明と補足です。和文は省略します。
 
The following is an excerpt from "tentative translation from Japanese original" of "Advice for Pregnant Women on Fish Consumption and Mercury", released on November 2, 2005 from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan.
For the full text go to:
http://www.mhlw.go.jp/topics/bukyoku/iyaku/syoku-anzen/suigin/dl/051102-1en.pdf
(The above link does not work. You need to copy the URL and paste it in the URL input field on your browser to view the full text.)

Note that this "tentative translation" is not an exact equivalent of the original: 

NOTE: This "Advice" is for pregrant women only.
The photos are not part of this Advice. I inserted these photos, which are not mine but selected by me from Google image search results. The texts in red are added by me.

***
Recommended amount (muscle): Up to about 80 grams (average 1 meal) per 2 months (10 grams/week)
Kind of fish and shellfish:
Bottlenose dolphin
(No appropriate photos found)
(Even in Japan, dolphin meats are hard to come by unless you go to specific areas where dolphin meat consumption is popular.)

Recommended amount (muscle): Up to about 80 grams (1 meal) per 2 weeks (40 grams/week)
Short-finned pilot whale
(No appropriate photos found)

Recommended amount (muscle): Up to 80 grams (1 meal) per week*1 (80 grams/week)
Kind of fish and shellfish: Alfonsino (kinmedai in Japanese)



Swordfish (mekajiki in Japanese)




Bluefin tuna (kuro maguro or hon maguro in Japanese)


Bigeye tuna (mebachi maguro in Japanese)


Finely-striate buccinum (ecchuu bai gai in Japanese)
Baird’ beaked whale (tsuchi kujira in Japanese)




 (The right sashimi is minke whale meat.)
Tsuchi kujira is a specialty of Wada city, Chiba prefecture.

Sperm whale
(No appropriate photos found)
I don't think sperm whale meat is available in Japan.

Recommended amount (muscle): Up to 160 grams (average 2 meals) per week*1
(160 grams/week)
Kind of fish and shellfish: Yellowback seabream (kidai in Japanese)





Marlin (makajiki in Japanese)



Hilgendorf saucord (scorpion fish, yume kasago, also known as nodoguro)




Southern bluefin tuna (minami maguro in Japanese)



Blue shark (yoshikiri zame in Japanese)



Dall's porpoise
(No appropriate photos found)
(Even in Japan, dolphin meats are hard to come by unless you go to specific areas where dolphin meat consumption is popular.)
 
Edited to add:
In the June 1 2010 revision of the Japanese original, kuromutsu (Scombrops gilberti) is added to the following category of the list:
Recommended amount (muscle): Up to 160 grams (average 2 meals) per week*1
(160 grams/week)
 
Kurumutsu photos:
 
 

September 19, 2017

Balenine in Baleen Whales/ヒゲクジラ内のバレニン

Baleen whales contain large amounts of balenine. Here is some info about this substance.
ヒゲクジラは、バレニンを大量に含んでいます。この物質についての情報です。

Balenine is one type of imidazole dipeptide. Nα-β-Alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine. Also known as ophidine. It is contained in large quantity in the muscle of a baleen whale, and is considered a biological material having anti-fatigue action.
Balenine was identified from the muscle of a baleen whale for the first time in 1962. In 1976, it was confirmed to exist in the muscle of sperm whales, blue-white dolphins, toads, and common scallops. By 2009, it was found that whereas the muscle of sperm wales did not contain much balenine (several mg per 100 g), it was contained in large quantity in the muscle of minke whales, sei whales, Antarctic minke whales, fin whales, and Bryde's whales (one thousand and several hundred mg per 100 g).

バレニンとは、イミダゾールジペプチドの一つ。Nα-β-アラニル-1-メチル-L-ヒスチジン。別名:オフィジン (ophidine)。ヒゲクジラの筋肉中に多量に含有され、抗疲労作用のある生体物質とされる。
バレニンは、1962年にヒゲクジラの筋肉から初めて同定。1976年には、マッコウクジラ、スジイルカ、ヒキガエル、ホタテガイの筋肉中に確認された。2009年までに、マッコウクジラの筋肉にはバレニンはそれほど含まれていない(100g中に数mg)ものの、ミンククジラ、イワシクジラ、クロミンククジラ、ナガスクジラ、ニタリクジラの筋肉には多量に含まれていること(100g中に千数百mg)がわかった。
(Source/出典: バレニン)

Two other main types of imidazole dipeptide are carnosine (contained in the breasts of migratory birds, among others) and anserine (contained in migratory fish like tuna, among others).
イミダゾールジペプチドには他の主な種類は次の2つです:カルノシン(渡り鳥の胸肉などに含まれる)、アンセリン(マグロなどの回遊魚などに含まれる)。

Here is some info about balenine content.
バレニン含有量に関する情報です。 
(Source: PDF file released from the Japan Whaling Association)
(出典:日本捕鯨協会発行のPDFファイル)


Comparison of balenine content (translation by me)
                                                    Balenine (in mg per 100 g)

Tuna                            Red flesh   Not detected
Bonito (skipjack tuna)   Red flesh   Trace
Fin whale                     Red meat  1,466
Minke whale                 Red meat  1,874
Sperm whale                Red meat  553
Cow                             Beef         2 or less
Pig                              Pork          48 or less

September 18, 2017

Whale Meat/鯨肉(くじらにく、げいにく)

The following is an explanation of most of the cuts of whale meat popular in Japan. The Japanese text is from the whale meat entry in the Japanese edition of Wikipedia. The translations and notes are by me. Photos shown here are not mine but copied from the results of Google image searches.
日本で一般的な鯨肉の切り身の説明です。和文はWikipediaの日本語版の鯨肉からコピーしたもので、翻訳と注は私のものです。写真は私のものではなく、Google画像検索の結果からコピーしたものです。

1. Seseri: Tongue. Also called saezuri (lit. singing). Regarded as a high class portion. Fatty on the whole, with the base and the tip differing in flavor. Processed into koro, which used to be(?) used as an oden ingredient in Kansai (Western Japan), among others.
Note: I think the term saezuri is more common for this meaning. The term seseri is more often used to mean the neck meat of a chicken and a type of yakitori (grilled skewered) made with this meat.
1. セセリ - 舌。さえずりともいう。高級部位とされる。付け根と先端でも味が異なり、全体に脂肪が多い。コロに加工されて関西のおでん種等に用いられるなどした。
注: この意味では、「さえずり」のほうが一般的だと思います。「セセリ」は、鶏の首の肉や、その肉を使った焼き鳥を指すのに使われます。
Photo of chicken seseri/鶏のセセリの写真:
Photo of chicken seseri yakitori/鶏のセセリの焼き鳥の写真:
2. Oba (lit. tail wing): Tail or fluke. Fatty and gelatinous. Also called obake or obaike. Salted to make sarashi kujira, described later.
2. オバ(尾羽) - 尾びれ。脂肪とゼラチン質からなる。「おばけ(尾羽毛)」「おばいけ」とも。塩漬にし、後述の「さらしくじら」に用いる。
3. Onomi (lit. tail flesh): Marbled meat at the base of the tail and regarded as the highest class portion today. Also called oniku (lit. tail meat). Used as sashimi and steaks. For a minke whale, the part is less marbled; strictly speaking, a minke whale has hardly any onomi.
3. オノミ(尾の身) - 尾びれの付け根の霜降り肉で、現在は最高級部位とされる。尾肉。刺身やステーキに用いられる。ミンククジラでは霜降り程度が弱く、厳密にはほとんど存在しない。

4. Hime wata (lit. princesses innards): Gullet. Boiled for eating.
4. ヒメワタ(姫腸) - 食道のこと。茹でて食べる。
5. Hyakujo (lit. one hundred tatami mats): Stamach. Boiled for eating.
5. ヒャクジョウ(百畳) - 胃のこと。茹でて食べる。

6. Hyakuhiro (lit. one hundred hiro (where hiro is a length unit (1 hiro = approx. 1.8 m (6 feet))): Small intestines. Boiled for eating.
6. ヒャクヒロ(百尋) - 小腸のこと。茹でて食べる。

7. Mamewata (lit. bean innards): Kidney. Boiled for eating.
7. マメワタ(豆腸) - 腎臓のこと。茹でて食べる。
8. Fukuro wata (lit. bag innards): Lung. Simmered or eaten raw.
8. フクロワタ(袋腸) - 肺。煮物のほか、生食も。
(Can't find an appropriate photo/適切な写真が見つかりません)

9. Karagimo: Liver. Usually not for eating but used to make Kanyu Drops.
9. カラギモ - 肝臓。あまり普通の食用にはせず、肝油ドロップなどにする。
(Can't find an appropriate photo/適切な写真が見つかりません)
Photo of Kanyu Drops/肝油ドロップの写真:
10. Hongawa (lit. real, true, authentic skin): Skin and fat beneath the skin. Used as sashimi and used to make "koro" and "shio kujira" described later.
10. ホンガワ(本皮) - 表皮と皮下脂肪層。刺身のほか、後述の「コロ」や「塩鯨」にする。
11. Kanoko (lit. young deer or fawn): Marbled meat around the joints from jaw to cheeks, with muscle scattering in the fat with a dotted pattern. (Note: The Japanese is hard to translate and understand.) Although marbled, tougher to chew than onomi. Used in harihari nabe or eaten as sashimi.
11. カノコ(鹿の子) - あごからほほにかけての関節周辺の肉で、鹿の子状に脂肪の中に筋肉が散り、霜降り状態のもの。同じ霜降り肉でも、尾の身より歯ごたえがある。はりはり鍋や刺身で食べる。

12. Akaniku (lit. red meat): Red meat. Less fatty portion such as dorsal meat and ventral meat. Also called akami niku. The largest portion that accounts for 30-40% of the total production. Used to be supplied for school lunches. Used for kujira katsu (breaded and deep-fried whale cutlets) and tatsuta age (meat seasoned, dusted with katakuriko (potato starch), and deep-fried. Often used as sashimi today.
12. アカニク(赤肉) - 背肉、腹肉などの脂肪の少ない部位。赤身肉。生産量の30-40%を占める最も多い部位であり、かつての学校給食にも供給された。鯨カツや竜田揚げのほか、現在では刺身にも多く用いる。
Tatsuta age/竜田揚げ
Kujira katsu/鯨カツ
Sashimi/刺身
13. Shiro de mono: Opposite of akaniku (red meat). Generic term for fatty portions beneath the skin, such as hongawa. Also called hironiku (white meat).
13. シロデモノ(白手物) - 赤肉の対語。本皮などの皮下脂肪部分の総称。白肉。

14. Unesu: Striped and indented meat from lower jaw to belly of a baleen whale. Used to make bacon and boiled for eating.
14. ウネス(畝須) - ヒゲクジラの下あごから腹にかけての縞模様の凹凸部分の肉。ベーコン材料のほか茹でても食す。
15. Hige (lit. whisker, beard, etc.): The baleen of a young right whale was used for human consumption. Also used as a raw material for substitute soy sauce.
15. ヒゲ - 若いセミクジラのクジラヒゲが食用にされた例もある。代用醤油の原料にも使われた。
(Can't find an appropriate photo/適切な写真が見つかりません)

16. Kohige: Gum. May be thinly cut for human consumption.
16. コヒゲ - 歯茎の部分。薄く切って食用にすることがある。
(Can't find an appropriate photo/適切な写真が見つかりません)

17. Kabura bone: Cartridge tissue inside the upper jaw bone. Used for Matsuura zuke and Genkai zuke (both being types of pickle). In the Edo period, processed into a delicacy called kujirano shi or horihori.
17. カブラボネ(かぶら骨) - 上あごの骨の内部にある軟骨組織。松浦漬や玄海漬に用いるほか、江戸時代には鯨熨斗(くじらのし。ホリホリとも。)という珍味にも加工された。

18. Takeri: Penis. In the Edo period, considered medicinal.
18. タケリ - ペニス。江戸時代には薬効があると称された。
19. Kinso: Testis. Boiled for eating.
19. キンソウ - 睾丸。茹でて食べる。
(Can't find an appropriate photo/適切な写真が見つかりません)

20. Hina (chick?): Clitoris. Boiled for eating.
ヒナ - クリトリス。
(Can't find an appropriate photo/適切な写真が見つかりません)

Processed products:
加工品:

1. Koro: Made by deep-frying whale meat, squeezing the oil, and drying the rest. Loved by Osaka people. It was initially supposed to be a recycled product, but was produced actively later. Besides common koro (also called irigawa, lit. roasted skin) made of hongawa, also available are saekoro, made of tongue, dabu kasu, made of innards. Koro made from sperm whales was popular among ordinary people. In Kagoshima, koro is called seshikara.
1. 鯨肉を揚げて油を絞った残りを乾燥させたもの。大阪で好まれ、本来は再利用であったはずが、積極的な生産対象にまでなった。本皮を原料とした一般的なコロ(煎皮とも)のほか、舌を原料としたサエコロ、内臓のダブ粕などがある。マッコウクジラのものが庶民には親しまれた。鹿児島ではセシカラと呼ぶ。
2. Ude mono: Generic term for any of various innards such as hyakuhiro that are boiled.
2. ウデモノ(茹で物) - 百尋ほか各種内臓を茹でたものの総称。

3. Suehiro: Boiled unesu. The term is mainly used in Nagasaki. The term derives from the fact that suehiro has a cross section that spreads out wide toward the end. Thinly sliced and eaten with soy sauce and ginger juice, etc.
3. 末広 - 畝須を茹でたもので、主に長崎での呼び名。断面が末広がりであることに由来。薄く切り生姜醤油などで食す。
(Can't find an appropriate photo/適切な写真が見つかりません)

4. Shio kujira: Salted hongawa. It has been distributed even in mountainous areas since times, used for kujira jiru (soup) and nimono (simmered dishes).
4. 塩鯨 - 本皮を塩漬けにしたもの。古くから山間部までかなり広く流通し、鯨汁や煮物に用いられてきた。
5. Sarashi kujira: Salted obake (oba in 2. above) thinly sliced, put in hot water, and then soaked in cold water. Eaten with su-miso (vinegar and miso sauce). This dish is called obake, just like the ingredient, and is also called oba yuki (snow), and hana (flower) kujira because of its white transparent apperance. Shio kujira on hongawa can also be cooked in the same way. (Note: I can't tell what it means.)
5. さらしくじら - 塩漬の尾羽毛を薄く切って熱湯をかけ、冷水でさらしたもの。酢みそで食べる。これも「おばけ」などと呼ぶほか、白く透明な外見から「おば雪」「花くじら」とも。本皮の塩鯨も同様に調理できる。

6. Kujira bacon: Unesu that is salted and then smoked. It is often colored red on the surface. Thinly sliced and then slightly roasted over fire for eating. Hongawa may be used as a substitute because of the shortage of the raw material (unesu).
6. くじらベーコン - 畝須を塩漬けにしてから燻製にしたもの。表面が赤く着色されていることが多い。薄切りしたものを軽く火であぶるなどして食べる。原料の不足から、本皮で代用されることもある。