October 3, 2014

Poisonous Mushrooms in Japan/日本の毒キノコ

Here I attempt to list some poisonous mushrooms in Japan. The list is not exhaustive; just think of it as a starting point if you ever want to go mushroom hunting in Japan. If you cannot identify specific mushrooms, contact your nearest health department (hokenjo 保健所 ほけんじょ). In Japan, unlike in other countries like France and Germany, pharmacies do not provide free mushroom identification service.

1. Tsukiyotake ツキヨタケ (Omphalotus guepiniformis, Omphalotus japonicus)
Symptoms: Vomiting, stomachache, frequent diarrhea
Responsible for the most mushroom poisoning cases in Japan.
Look-alikes: Shiitake, mukitake, hiratake (oyster mushroom)
Images of tsukiyotake

2. Dokusasako ドクササコ (Clitocybe acromelalga)
Symptoms: Symptoms appear 4-5 DAYS (not hours) after consumption. Inflammation of ends of limbs, nose, ears, penis. Intense pain, so intense as if being pierced by a burning fire iron, continues for 1 months or longer. Even morphine cannot alleviate the pain.
Look-alikes: Naratake (honey mushroom), chichitake (Lactarius volemus)
Images of dokusasako

3. Kusa-ura-benitake クサウラベニタケ (Entoloma rhodopolium, woodpink gill)
Symptoms: Sever diarrhea and vomiting, stomachache
Look-alike: Ura-beni-hotei-shimeji (Entoloma sarcopum)
Images of kusa-ura-benitake

4. Kaentake カエンタケ (Podostroma cornu-damae)
Symptoms: Motor function and language disorder, kidney failure, liver failure. Sometimes fatal.
DON'T EVEN TOUCH KAENTAKE, or you may be inflamed. Keep children away from it.
Images of kaentake
Look-alike: Beni-naginata-take(Clavulinopsis miyabeana)
Actually, the two mushrooms may look like each other, but quite differ in texture. Kaentake is hard, while beni-naginata-take is soft.

5. Cholera-take コレラタケ (Galerina fasciculata)
Symptoms: Stomacheache, diarrhea, similar to those of cholera.
Images of colera-take
Look-alikes: Kuritake, naratake (honey mushroom), enokitake, nameko

6. Hikage-shibire-take ヒカゲシビレタケ (Psilocybe subcaerulipes)
Symptoms: Numbing of limbs, hallucination
Images of hikage-shibire-take
Look-alike: Naratake (honey mushroom)

7. Kakishimeji カキシメジ (Tricholoma ustale, burnt knight)
Symptoms: Vomiting, diarrhea, stomachache
Images of kakishimeji
Look-alike: Shiitake

8. Nigakuritake ニガクリタケ (Hypholoma fasciculare, sulfur tuft)
Symptoms: Vomiting, diarrhea, stomachache.
Images of nigakuritake
Look-alike: Kuritake (Hypholoma sublateritium), which is considered good to eat in Japan.

9. Tengutake テングタケ (Amanita pantherina var. pantherina, panther cap)
Symptoms: Delirium, hallucination
Images of tengutake

10. Oo-warai-take オオワライタケ (Gymnopilus junonius, laughing Jim)
Symptoms: Chill, vertigo, hallucination, auditory hallucination
Images of oo-warai-take

11. Doku-tsuru-take ドクツルタケ (Amanita virosa, destroying angel)
Symptoms: Similar to those of cholera. Sometimes fatal.
Images of doku-tsuru-take

12. Haiiro shimeji ハイイロシメジ (Clitocybe nebularis)
Symptoms: Diarrhea, vomiting, etc.
Images of haiiro shimeji
Generally considered poisonous, but some people may think otherwise.


Fräulein Trude said...

Dokusasako ドクササコ seems to be especially nasty.

Hiroyuki said...

Kiki: Yes, definitely. I hear that some people commit suicide because they cannot put up with the pain.

9895039531 seeandoh said...

I read somewhere that if you put a poisonous mushroom in a glass of water along with a metallic coin, the coin will turn black or deep blue in colour due to the poison.

Hiroyuki said...

seeandoh: I'm afraid that's a superstition about poisonous mushrooms.

All of the above superstitions about mushrooms in Japan are FALSE:
1. If you can tear the stem lengthwise, you can eat the mushroom.
2. If you cook poisonous mushrooms with eggplants, you can eat them.
3. You can eat worm-eaten mushrooms.

9895039531 seeandoh said...

Thanks for the info. I may check it out next time. The Monsoon just ended and it is hard to find mushroom in my backyard.